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To reupholster a chair cushion, you'll need:
Take off the original cover by using the pry bar to remove the staples. Pliers come in handy for pulling those hard-to-remove staples.
With the original cover removed, check that the seat's foam padding is in good condition. If replacement is needed, remove the original foam. Then choose an appropriate loft of foam for the seat, cut it to size using the seat as a template and glue the foam into place with spray adhesive.
Place the seat, with foam padding attached, on the wrong side of your upholstery fabric. Trim the fabric, creating a large enough square that leaves ample room to fold the fabric over the edge.
Tip: Remember to check out the remnant fabric section at your local craft or thrift store. I picked up a yard of this Waverly Modern Essentials fabric with Fun Floret pattern, in Licorice, for 99 cents.
For clean corners, pull the fabric tight towards the opposite side of the seat and fold the remaining fabric diagonally over the top. Staple into place and continue along the perimeter.
With the fabric firmly attached around the seat, trim off the extra fabric toward the inside of the seat's center, leaving about 1/2 inch. Then reattach the seat to the chair's frame.
If you'd like to finish the underside, staple a panel of cambric liner to the bottom of the chair pad. See how here