266 design dictionary Ideabooks

Rough Hewn
The term "rough hewn" describes wood or a beam that has been shaped roughly and hasn't been sanded or finished. The surface is not smooth and the grain is very apparent and coarse.
Quoin
Quoins are the stone blocks used at the corners of Georgian-style masonry houses. They were traditionally granite rectangles which were placed in an alternating pattern and served as a structural element for load-bearing walls. Now...
Portico
A portico consists of a set of columns that support a roof, creating a covered porch, entrance or walkway. "Portico" is an Italian word, but the style originated in ancient Greece, where porticoes and colonnades were popular gathering places.
Pony Wall
A pony wall is a half-wall or short wall that does not bear the load of any overlying structures. It serves as a room divider or partition.
Pilaster
A pilaster is the official term for a flattened column projecting from a wall around a doorway or window or for a classical decoration on furniture. A simple pilaster will include a base, main column and a capital (the decoration at...
Pergola
A pergola is a structural framework consisting of posts and crossbeams that create an open roof.
Pediment
Common in classical architecture, a pediment is the triangular face and gabled roof of a structure. Greek architecture used the pediment as a decorative detail. The triangular faces...
Newel Post
A newel post is the post at the end of a balustrade of a staircase. Larger and more decorative than the spindles of the railing, it can support the railing at the top, bottom and midsection depending on the length of the flight.
Mortise and Tenon
A mortise and tenon joint is the most basic joint in timber frame construction. Used for thousands of years to connect pieces of wood at a 90-degree angle, the mortise is a slot cut into the wood, and the tenon is its corresponding projection. It...
Loggia
Whereas a colonnade is a series of columns spaced evenly, a loggia is the room or recess created along the facade of a building where the colonnade and roof create a covered porch or walkway. Loggias can be at ground level or elevated.
Leaded Glass
Leaded glass refers to the many pieces of clear, stained, beveled or otherwise decorative panes of glass soldered traditionally with lead to create a window. Leaded glass is not to be confused with lead glass, which is simply a type of glass mixed...
Jerkinhead Roof
A jerkinhead roof is a gable roof on which the peaks of the gable ends are clipped off with what resembles a hip roof. The advantage of this style is that the clipping streamlines the peak of the gable roof, which can otherwise be highly stressed in...
Hip Roof
A hip roof slopes on all four sides. It can be pyramid-like and reach a single peak, or have a ridge between two of the slopes. Very sturdy in its construction, it requires less bracing than a gable roof, but at the expense of losing valuable attic...
Herringbone
Whether it's on cloth, brick or a parquet floor, the herringbone pattern gets its name from the crisscross shape of a herring's skeleton. Not to be mistaken for a chevron, a herringbone pattern is distinctly created from 90-degree angles only. The interlocking...
Garden Folly
A fantastical building with little use, a garden folly is intended as an extravagant hoax. This architectural element is usually in the form of a tower, castle, bridge, pagoda or temple, sometimes in ruins and always purely as decoration....
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