Technically, you can grow anything in a container, as long as the container is big enough. There are tables on the internet which give root depths for vegetables.
If you are looking for smaller root systems for space efficiency, here is a list of vegetables for container gardening:
You can grow many cultivars of vegetables in containers and they don't have to be miniature because they have shallow root systems...
Vegetables for Container Gardening:
Beans: Bush Romano, Bush Blue Lake, Tender Crop, Royal Burgundy, Henderson Bush, Jackson, Wonder Bush, Topcrop, Greencrop, Contender, (Pole) Blue Lake, Kentucky Wonder, Bush Romano, Bush Blue Lake, Tender Crop, Lima: Henderson Bush, Jackson, Wonder Bush
Beets: Little Egypt, Early Red Ball, Asgrow Wonder,ÔDetroit Dark Red,Õ ÔGreentop Bunching,Õ ÔMonoking Burgundy, Red Ace, Little Egypt, Early Red Ball, Early Wonder, Detroit Dark Red, Boltardy, Burpee Golden
Broccoli: Green Comet, DeCicco, Green Comet, DeCicco, Spartan, Italian Green Sprouting
Brussels Sprouts: Jade Cross, Long Island Improved
Cabbage: Dwarf Morden, Red Ace, Early Jersey Wakefield, Dwarf Modern, Red Ace, Early Jersey Wakefield, Little Leaguer, Earliana, Copenhagen Market, Ruby Ball Hybrid, Red Head Hybrid
Carrot: Short & Sweet, Danvers Half Long, Tiny Sweet, Royal Chantenay,Õ ÔRed Cored Chantenay,Õ ÔLong Type Chantenay,Õ ÔDanvers 126Õ and ÔOrlando Gold, Baby Finger Nantes, Goldenhart, Little Finger, Royal or Red Cored Chantenay, Ox Hart, Baby Finger
Chinese Cabbage: Michihili, Burpee Hybrid, Michihili, Burpee Hybrid
Cucumbers: Burpless, Liberty, Early Pik, Crispy, Salty, Patio Pik, Spacemaster, Pot Luck, Bush Whopper, Bush Champion, Burpee Hybrid, Salad Bush, Parks Burpless Bush, Burpless Early Pik, Patio Pik, Spacemaster, Pot Luck
Garlic Most Varieties
Green Onions: Beltsville Bunching, Crysal Wax, Evergreen Bunching
Lettuce: Buttercrunch, Salad Bowl, Romaine, Dark Green Boston, Ruby, Bibb, Green Ice, Red Sails, Lolla Rosa, Buttercrunch, Nevada, Bibb, Parris Island Cos, Salad Bowl, Slobolt, Tendercrisp, Black-Seeded Simpson and Oakleaf, mustard cress, Salad Bowl, Ruby, Grand Rapids, Oak Leaf, Buttercrunch, Dark Green Boston, Little Gem, Bibb
Peppers: Yolo Wonder, Keystone Resistant Giant, Canape, (Hot) Red Cherry, Jalapeno Eggplant: Florida Market, Black Beauty, Long Tom, Slim Jim, Ichiban, Slim Jim, Ichiban, Black Beauty, Modern Midget, Mission Bell, Small Ruffled Red, Thai Green, Bambino, Sweet Banana, Yolo Wonder, Long Red Cayenne, Sweet Banana, Valencia (Hybrid), Jackpot (Hybrid), Camelot, Jalapeno, Red Chili, Giant Thai, Super Cayenne II, Sweet Banana, Yolo Wonder, Long Red Cayenne, Bell Boy, Keystone Resistant, California Wonder, New Ace, Red Cherry, Long Red Cayenne, Jalapeno, Thai Hot