Architecture and Interiors Styles
Arts & Crafts (1880–1910) Geographic origin: Japan, Britain, mainland Europe, North America Materials: mahogany, oak wood Key designers: John Ruskin, William Morris, Philip Webb, Arthur Mackmurdo, and Christopher Dresser Left: Inlaid Arts & Crafts mahogany bookcase cabinet, circa 1900, sold for £2,375 via Lyon & Turnbullon October 26, 2016. Right: Shapland & Petter, Barnstaple, Arts & Crafts mahogany open bookcase, circa 1905, sold for £10,000 via Lyon & Turnbull on October 26, 2016.
Victorian (1830–1900) Geographic origin: England Materials: walnut, rosewood, mahogany, velvet Key designers: William Morris, Augustus Pugin, Christopher Dresser Left: Victorian armchair, $675 via The Antique and Artisan Gallery. Right: Victorian brass and marble pedestal, sold for €420 via Sheppards on June 27, 2017. Queen Victoria reigned for 63 years, during which time the Industrial Revolution enabled furniture-makers to produce furniture for the growing middle class championed by the Queen. While it encompassed many styles and designers (including the Arts & Crafts movement), Victorian furniture was often heavy and big. Styles that inspired Victorian designers include Elizabethan, Rococo, Neoclassical, and more.
Regency (1762–1830) Geographic origin: France, Britain Materials: mahogany, carved wood, wood veneers, paint, and metal inlay Key designers: Thomas Hope, Thomas Sheraton, and George Smith Left: A Regency parcel gilt side table, circa 1825, sold for £3,844 via Dreweatts & Bloomsbury on July 7, 2015. Right: Set of four Regency chairs, circa 1815. $3900 via Spurgeon Lewis Antiques. Known in France as the French Empire style, the Regency style coincided with the reign of King George IV of Great Britain. Inspired by recent discoveries of ancient Greek, Roman, and Egyptian artifacts, Regency furniture is characterized by a strict interpretation of archaeological finds, or “pure forms.” Defining features of Regency furniture include flat surfaces, delicately painted and/or veneered wood, metal inlay, and classicizing motifs like rosettes, lion masks, and metal paw feet. Each piece exemplifies the harmony of utility with the pure classical forms popular in Britain at the time. Furthermore, each piece was made so i...
Neo-Classical (1750–1830) Geographic origin: France, Britain, Italy, United States Materials: painted and gilded wood, marble inlay Key designers: Sir William Chambers, James Stuart, Robert Adam, George Hepplewhite, and Thomas Sheraton Neo-Classical console in hazelnut and mahogany, 18th century, €280 – €380 via Renascimento on July 11, 2017. British Neo-Classical furniture is similar to Regency furniture, as both styles rely heavily upon influences from ancient Greece and Rome. The primary distinguishing factor is that Neo-Classical furniture is less strict in its interpretation of ancient models. British designers (Robert Adam, for example) often looked to contemporary developments in Paris and Rome when creating furniture pieces for British consumers. The objects are typically more extravagant than Regency pieces, but they still favor straight lines, twisted fluting, and classicizing motifs. They were often made to complement a Neo-Classical interior space, resulting...
Gothic Revival (1740–1900) Geographic origin: Britain, United States Materials: dark woods, velvet and leather upholstery Key designers: A.W.N. Pugin, John Ruskin, and William Burges Pair of English Gothic Revival side chairs, 19th century, $200 – $400 via Garth’s Auctioneers & Appraisers. The rebirth of the Gothic style coincided with the resurgence of traditional Anglo-Catholic beliefs between the mid-1700s and late 19th century. Concerns about the need to return to social and religious conservatism necessitated stylistic changes that not only affected the art and architecture of the period but also drastically altered the appearance of furniture. Tables, chairs, dressers, and other pieces were carved with shapes resembling pointed arches and rose windows. Decorative elements, such as floral details, finials, heraldic motifs, and linenfold designs, frequently adorned the objects’ surfaces. In addition to hearkening back to the religiosity and traditionalism of the Middle Ages, furniture made in the Got...
Rococo (1730–1770) Geographic origin: France, Germany, Austria, Britain Materials: mahogany, walnut, oak, ash, elm, beech, and marble inlay Key designers: Hubert Gravelot, Thomas Johnson, and Paul de Lamerie Left: George III Rococo pierced giltwood girandole mirror, sold for $6,000 via Ahlers & Ogletree on June 26, 2016. Right: Pair of Rococo carved walnut fauteuils, late 18th/early 18th century, $500 – $1,000 via Butterscotch Auction Gallery on July 16, 2017. The name for this style is derived from the French word “rocaille,” meaning “shell” or “rock;” indeed, rock and broken shell motifs are defining features of the style. The Rococo aesthetic first became popular in France in the early- to mid-18th century, during which time there was a push toward asymmetrical, free-flowing designs . Like its art, Rococo furniture was influenced by nature and characterized by playful designs including acanthus leaves, S- and C-scrolls, and decorative borders. Its elaborate decoration encourages viewers to gaze upon Rococo furniture with wandering eyes, ...
Georgian (1714–1830) origin: England Materials: mahogany Key designers: Thomas Chippendale, George Hepplewhite, Robert Adam A matched pair of Georgian mahogany 3 tier dumb waiters, circa 1790, sold via Gormleys Auctionsfor £650 on June 12, 2012. The importation of mahogany from Central and South America led to its replacing walnut as the primary wood in furniture-making during the Georgian era. This term extends to design under Kings George I, George II, and George III. Designer Thomas Chippendale rose to prominence during the period, which was identified by straight forms with intricate low-relief ornamentation.
Queen Anne (1702–1760) sometimes known as “Late Baroque.” Geographic origin: England Materials: walnut, poplar, cherry, maple Left: Queen Anne walnut side chair, English, early 18th century, $300 – $500 via Freeman’s on July 12, 2017. Right: Queen Anne lowboy, 18h century, $400 – $700 via DuMouchelles on July 16, 2017. Curved lines and minimal ornamentation are known characteristics of the Queen Anne style, sometimes known as “Late Baroque.” The furniture designs began to evolve during the reign of William III, but the term generally applies to pieces popular during and after Queen Anne’s reign (1702-1714). It continued to be lighter and more designed than previous eras, featuring curved shapes, cabriole legs, cushioned seats, and padded feet, but ornamentation is minimal.
William and Mary (1690–1730) Also known as “Early Baroque” furniture, Left: William and Mary Burl Walnut Chest, 17th century at M.S. Rau Antiques. Right: William and Mary walnut armchair, sold via Sotheby’s for $1,500 on October 17, 2015. Geographic origin: England Materials: walnut, maple This was the era in which the daybed and writing desk were both invented. William of Orange appreciated French design, and its influence is felt in the decoration of the furniture. Walnut and maple were heavily used, and designs were thinner and more embellished than in previous reigns.
Carolean/Restoration (1660–1685) 17th century Carolean Carved Walnut Ceremonial Chair, circa 1670, offered via Sheppards on June 28, 2016. Geographic origin: England Materials: gold and silver embellishments, leather, walnut, velvet King Charles II ascended to the throne after a period of monarchical upheaval in England, bringing with him French and Dutch Baroque inspiration from his time in exile. Furniture of the period was decorated with floral marquetry, walnut, and velvet upholstery and included carvings and gilding.
Jacobean (1603–1625) Left: Jacobean style needlepoint armchair, sold via Pook and Pook for $213 on September 13, 2012. Right: Jacobean Style Cabinet, offered via Sloans & Kenyon on July 25, 2009.--- Geographic origin: England Materials: oak, pine, porcelain, mother-of-pear This era of design began when King James I inherited the crown of England from Queen Elizabeth and resulted in large, boxy furniture meant to last several generations. The furniture is known to be more practical than comfortable, using mainly oak and pine.
Elizabethan (1520–1620) Elizabethan Oak Withdrawing Table, late 16th/early 17th century, Geographic origin: England Materials: oak, walnut, porcelain- While Queen Elizabeth didn’t begin her reign until 1533, this style of furniture is broadly defined as being created during the Renaissance. Around this time, furniture emerged from the Gothic era and slowly transformed to include classical influences. One key characteristic of the furniture is heavy ornamentation, especially on tables and four poster beds.
Ranch- or Rambler
Ranch- or Rambler
Ranch- or Rambler
Tudor House Style
Tudor Style House